Document Type : Review Article


pharmaceutics department, College of Pharmacy, Al-Zahraa University for women, Karbala, Iraq


In accordance with the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), drugs that fall into Class II are distinguished by having a lower solubility and a higher permeability. Therefore, co-crystallization has been developed for the purpose of dissolving medications that are notoriously difficult to dissolve. Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and coformers, are the components that go into the production of co-crystals. Pharmaceutical Co-crystals are a type of nonionic complex that can be utilized to solve a range of physicochemical issues, such as solubility, stability, and bioavailability. An item is said to be a co-crystal if it is comprised of two or more different molecular units and is kept together by weak intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding. super-porous systems, biodegradable hydrogel systems. Co-crystallization is frequently considered the most efficient method for improving the quality of medications since it can change the molecular interactions and chemical make-up of medicinal substances. Co-crystals provide an alternative approach for API, regardless of whether the API comprises acidic, basic, or ionizable groups. The reintroduction of compounds that have restricted pharmacological properties due to the fact that their functional groups are not ionizable acts as a complementary approach to approaches that have already been established. Inclusion, preparation, characterization of the co-crystals, as well as several applied research studies, are all topics that are covered in this review, along with their significance in the recent trend toward improving various physicochemical features of BCS class II medications, such as solubilization, stability, and bioequivalence.